Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences]]> vol. 15 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Impact of dental caries on quality of life of adolescents according to access to oral health services: a cross sectional study</b>]]> This study presents the prevalence of dental caries and its relation to the quality of life of adolescents according to the access to dental health services. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age participated in the study; they were all enrolled in public schools in a countryside municipality of the São Paulo State. Data related to dental caries were evaluated by the DMFT Index, and OHIP-14 was used for evaluating the quality of life. Mann Whitney and Spearmann correlation tests were also used (p<0.05). Results: A DMFT of 3.09 (±3.30) was found with a higher prevalence among the adolescents who used public dental services (3.43±3.34) compared with those who used private services (2.94±3.28). A statistically significant relationship between the decay component of DMFT with physical pain (0.020), physical disability (0.002) and quality of life (0.017) was verified. Conclusion: A low prevalence of dental caries was observed, and it was higher in adolescents who used public oral health services rather than private ones, evidencing the low influence of oral health on the quality of life of the participants. <![CDATA[<b>Factors influencing dental appearance satisfaction in adolescents: a cross-sectional study conducted in Southern Brazil</b>]]> The perception of dental aesthetic appearance may affect social interaction and psychological status, influencing dental needs and the search for treatments. Aim: To investigate the satisfaction with dental appearance and influencing factors among adolescents. Methods:The study was carried out among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years attending a private high school in Brazil. Data on demographic information, the perception of dental appearance, previous aesthetic treatments and wish to perform dental treatments were collected in the school. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test or Linear Trend. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Poisson regression. Results: A total of 531 adolescents (Response rate = 98.3%) answered the questionnaire. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with dental appearance was 17.4%. Almost 65% had history of previous orthodontic treatment and 16% performed dental bleaching. Approximately 45% of children wished to undergo orthodontics and 54.8% to bleach their teeth. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance was associated with individuals unsatisfied with dental color (95% IC[1.73;4.32]), those perceiving poor dental alignment (PR3.16 95% IC[2.11;4.72]) and those wishing orthodontic treatment (PR2.9; 95% IC[1.79; 4.70]). Conclusion: The prevalence of dissatisfaction was considerable and was associated with aesthetic concerns such as tooth color, dental alignment and with the wish for orthodontics. In this young population, a large part of adolescents had already performed orthodontic and bleaching treatments and wished to perform those treatments again. Satisfaction with dental appearance could affect the adolescents' behavior regarding search for dental treatment, thus causing possible overtreatment. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of ultrasonic activation in association with different final irrigants on intracanal smear layer removal</b>]]> Aim: To evaluate the influence of ultrasonic activation (US) with different irrigant regimens in smear layer removal. Methods:One hundred bovine incisors were instrumented and divided into ten groups (n=10) according to final irrigation protocols: distilled water (DW); DW+US; 17% EDTA; QMix; 10% citric acid; 37% phosphoric acid; 17% EDTA+US; QMix+US; 10% citric acid+US; 37% phosphoric acid+US. The samples were then submitted to scanning electron microscopy where a score system was used to evaluate the images and effectiveness of proposed treatments. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests for intergroup comparisons as well as the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests for intragroup comparisons at 5% significance level. Results: In the cervical third, groups 17% EDTA, QMix, 10% citric acid, 17% EDTA+US, QMix+US and 10% citric acid+US were more effective in smear layer removal (p<0.05); in the middle third, groups 17% EDTA+US and QMix+US were more effective in smear layer removal (p<0.05); in the apical third, groups 17% EDTA,17% EDTA+US and QMix+US were more effective in smear layer removal (p<0.05). Conclusion: US can aid 17% EDTA and QMix in smear layer removal at the middle third and QMix at the apical third, contributing to the cleaning of root canal system. <![CDATA[<b>Removable orthodontic appliances: frequency and cleaning agents used by students and recommended by dentists</b>]]> Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and hygiene habits of 13-19 years-old adolescent users of removable orthodontic appliances (ROA) and to determine hygiene methods for the appliances prescribed by dentists, in the city of Pelotas. Methods:The study had two stages. The first stage was a telephone interview with dentists. Dentists were interview by telephone calls in order to obtain information regarding the hygiene methods for cleaning acrylic appliances. Second stage was a cross-sectional study performed with schoolchildren. Children from public and private schools with secondary level were included in the sample. A questionnaire was applied to the students using any type of ROA. Questionnaires included demographic information and behavioral characteristics. Data collected were subjected to Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: he prevalence of children using ROA was 5.4%. Students (89.7%) and dentists (47.2%) reported to prefer mechanical methods to clean their ROA. Cleaning with soup, hydrogen peroxide or effervescent tabs were less used. High frequency of use was associated with higher frequency of hygiene on the ROA. Conclusion: The prevalence of schoolchildren using removable appliances was low. The common cleaning method used by children and prescribed by dentists was mechanical. Hygiene frequency was significantly associated with the routine of use of the appliance and with the type of hygiene method.. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of factors in the oral mucosa maturation pattern: a cross-sectional study applying multivariate analyses</b>]]> Aim:To evaluate the association between oral health status, socio-demographic and behavioral factors with the pattern of maturity of normal epithelial oral mucosa. Methods: Exfoliative cytology specimens were collected from 117 men from the border of the tongue and floor of the mouth on opposite sides. Cells were stained with the Papanicolaou method and classified into: anucleated, superficial cells with nuclei, intermediate and parabasal cells. Quantification was made by selecting the first 100 cells in each glass slide. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were collected from a structured questionnaire. Oral health was analyzed by clinical examination, recording decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) and use of prostheses. Multivariable linear regression models were applied. Results: No significant differences for all studied variables influenced the pattern of maturation of the oral mucosa except for alcohol consumption. There was an increase of cell surface layers of the epithelium with the chronic use of alcohol. Conclusion: It is appropriate to use Papanicolaou cytopathological technique to analyze the maturation pattern of exposed subjects, with a strong recommendation for those who use alcohol - a risk factor for oral cancer, in which a change in the proportion of cell types is easily detected. <![CDATA[<b>Odontometric analysis of molars for sex determination</b>]]> Aim: To investigate the existence of sexual dimorphism between the first and second permanent molars. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, blind study using comparative and statistical descriptive procedures. The sample included 50 pairs of plaster casts from undergraduate dental students (25 men/25 women) from the Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa/PB, Brazil, aged 20-26 years. Odontometric measurements of first and second maxillary/mandibular, right/left permanent molars were performed. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual/palatal (BL/BP) widths and the distance between the lingual cusps of corresponding molars in opposite quadrants, were measured. The data were analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA with Bonferroni (p≤0.05). Results: The crowns of all first molars were statistically larger in men than in women (p<0.05). Maxillary and mandibular left second molars (#27 and #37) did not differ in their MD widths (p=0.66, p=0.75), whereas mandibular left and right second molars (#37 and #47) showed statistically different BL widths (p=0.007 and p=0.008). As to the distance between the lingual cusps, only the first left-to-right mandibular molars (#36-46) showed no sex dimorphism (p=0.107). Conclusion: Molars are larger in males than in females. Individually, first molars demonstrated higher evidence of sex distinction than second molars. <![CDATA[<b>Epidemiological features of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate in Western Parana</b>]]> Aim: To describe the clinical, demographic and environmental features associated with NSCL/P (nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate) patients born in western Parana state, Brazil. Methods: To describe the clinical, demographic and environmental features associated with NSCL/P (nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate) patients born in western Parana state, Brazil. Results: Among the 188 patients, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was the most frequent subtype (55.8%), followed by cleft lip only (CLO, 25.0%) and cleft palate only (CPO, 19.2%). Caucasian males were the most affected, although no differences among types of cleft were observed. The otorhinolaryngologic and respiratory alterations were the most frequent systemic alterations in NSCL/P patients, and more than 80% of the NSCL/P mothers reported no vitamin supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed that the prevalence of nonsyndromic oral cleft types in this cohort was quite similar to previously reported prevalence rates. Systemic alterations were identified among 23.4% of the patients and patients with CLP were the most affected. History of maternal exposition to environmental factors related to nonsyndromic oral clefts was frequent and most mothers reported no vitamin supplements during the pregnancy. This study highlights the importance of identifying systemic alterations and risk factors associated with NSCL/P in the Brazilian population for planning comprehensive strategies and integrated actions for the development of preventive programs and treatment. <![CDATA[<b>Factors associated with the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate dental students in a Malaysian Dental School</b>]]> Aim: A retrospective clinical audit was carried out on records of endodontic treatment performed by dental undergraduates. The audit was performed to evaluate the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental undergraduates and determine the associated factors. Methods: 140 records of patients who had received root canal treatment by dental undergraduates were evaluated through periapical radiographs by two examiners (κ =0.74). The root canal fillings had their quality evaluated according to extent, condensation and presence of procedural mishap. Possible factors associated with technical quality such as tooth type, canal curvature, student level and quality of record keeping were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: Among the 140 root-filled teeth, acceptable extent, condensation and no-mishap were observed in 72.1%, 66.4% and 77.9% cases respectively. Overall, the technical quality of 68 (48.6%) root-filled teeth was considered acceptable. Overall, non-acceptable root canal fillings were significantly more likely to be observed in molars (69.2%), moderately and severely curved canals (71.4%) and junior students (61.5%). There was no association between acceptable root canal fillings and quality of record keeping. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal fillings was acceptable in 48.6% cases and it was associated with tooth type, degree of canal curvature and student seniority. <![CDATA[<b>Expression of TIMP-2 in HPV-16 infected oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients in Iraq</b>]]> Aim: To determine the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the difference in its expression level between positive and negative HPV-16 (human papilloma virus- 16) OSCC patients. Methods: This study was conducted on 33 biopsies obtained from patients with OSCC and 10 normal oral mucosa as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to investigate the presence of HPV-16, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to estimate the expression level of TIMP-2. Results: The TIMP-2 was expressed in 27 (81.8%) of OSCC sections with no significant difference between its expression level in HPV-16 positive and HPV-16 negative OSCC cases (p=0.058). TIMP-2 was found to be highly expressed in OSCC sections, and the presence of HPV was not related to its overexpression. Conclusion: The percentage of samples that appeared to accommodate detectable HPV-16 was high, but no significant difference was observed in relation to TIMP-2 expression level. Future studies with a larger number of patients are highly recommended to address the possible association between TIMp-2 and OSCC positive HPV-16. <![CDATA[<b>Salivary cortisol level and uncooperative behavior in pediatric dental practice</b>]]> Aim: To investigate the relation between uncooperative behavior and salivary cortisol level in children who underwent preventive dental care. Methods: The sample was composed by 10 children of both sexes aged 40 to 52 months, presenting uncooperative behavior during dental preventive treatments. The saliva collection was performed using a cotton wheel and an Eppendorf tube (Sarstedt Salivete®) in 3 different moments: a) at home, on a day without dental treatment and at the same time on the day of the sessions treatment; b) 30 min after the end of the session, when there was manifestation of uncooperative behavior; c) 30 min after the end of the session, when there was a cooperative behavior of the child. A sample of saliva was centrifuged for 5 minutes at 2400 rpm, 1 of mL of saliva was pipetted in an Eppendorf tube and stored in a freezer at -20 ° C. For the determination of the levels of salivary cortisol was used an Active® kit for cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) DSL-10-67100, composed of specific rabbit antibody anti-cortisol. Data were analyzed statistically for the uncooperative behavior issued in the beginning and at the end of sessions, using the paired t test (p<0.05) and for cortisol levels in saliva samples at home, after the beginning and at the end of sessions, using repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: During expression of uncooperative behavior in preventive dental care sessions the salivary cortisol level was significantly higher (0.65 ± 0.25 μg/dL) compared with expression of collaborative behavior (0.24 ± 0.10 μg/dL). Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that, even under preventive intervention, the stress must be controlled in order to reduce dental anxiety and fear <![CDATA[<b>Influence of adhesive system on quartz fiber post dislocation resistance in endodontically treated teeth</b>]]> Aim: To evaluate the dislocation resistance of the quartz fiber post/cement/dentin interface after different adhesion strategies. Methods: Forty bovine lower central incisors were selected and prepared with K-files using the step-back technique, and irrigated with 3 mL of distilled water preceding the use of each instrument. Prepared teeth were stored at 37ºC and 100% humidity for 7 days. The roots were prepared and randomized into 4 groups. The quartz fiber post was cemented with an adhesion strategy according to the following groups: GBisCem- BISCEM; GOneStep±C&B- One Step ± C&B; GAllBond±C&B- AllBond3 ± C&B; GAllBondSE±C&B- AllBondSE ±C&B with a quartz fiber post. Cross-sectional root slices of 0.7 mm were produced and stored for 24 h at 37° C before being submitted to push-out bond strength. Results: The mean and standard deviation values of dislocation resistance were GBisCem: 1.12 (± 0.23) MPa, GOneStep±C&B: 0.81 (± 0.31) MPa, GAllBond±C&B: 0.98 (± 0.14) MPa, and GAllBondSE±C&B: 1.57 (± 0.04) MPa. GAllBondSE±C&B showed significantly higher values of dislocation resistance than the other groups. Conclusion: Based on this study design, it may be concluded that adhesion strategies showed different results of quartz post dislocation resistance. Simplified adhesive system with sodium benzene sulphinate incorporation provided superior dislocation resistance. <![CDATA[<b>Antimicrobial and bond strength properties of a dental adhesive containing zinc oxide nanoparticles</b>]]> Aim: To assess the effect of adding zinc oxide nanoparticles to dental adhesives on their anti-microbial and bond strength properties. Methods: 45 human premolars were cut at the cement enamel junction (CEJ) and the crowns were sliced into buccal and lingual halves. The specimens were classified into three groups, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s and rinsed for 30 s. Single Bond, Single Bond+5% zinc oxide and Single Bond+10% zinc oxide were used in the first, second and third groups. A cylinder of Z250 composite was bonded and cured for 40 s. For anti-bacterial testing, 10 samples of each group were assessed by direct contact test; 10 μL of bacterial suspension was transferred into tubes containing adhesives and incubated for one hour; 300 μL of brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was added to each tube and after 12 h, 50 μL of bacteria and broth were spread on blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h. Results: The colony count decreased significantly in the second and third groups compared to the first. Conclusion: Incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into dental adhesives increases their anti-microbial properties without affecting their bond strength. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of root canal organic tissue dissolution capacity according to the type of irrigation solution and agitation technique</b>]]> Aim: To analyze the root canal organic tissue dissolution capacity promoted by irrigating solutions, with or without the use of different agitation techniques. Methods: Bovine pulp tissue fragments were initially weighed. The following irrigating solutions were tested: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution, and distilled water. The irrigating protocols were: immersion, mechanical agitation with endodontic files, and ultrasonic or sonic systems (Endoactivactor® and Easy Clean®). At the end of the protocols, the pulps were weighed to determine their final weight. For comparison, the average percentage of tissue dissolution in relation to the groups was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test complemented by multiple comparisons test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: Among the irrigation solutions, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite showed a higher dissolving power than 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and distilled water. Furthermore, ultrasonic and sonic systems were more effective irrigating protocols than immersion and mechanical agitation with endodontic files. Conclusion: The combination of sodium hypochlorite with an agitation system promotes a greater degree of tissue degradation. <![CDATA[<b>Erosive potential of sugar-free hard candies dissolved in water and artificial saliva</b>]]> Aim: To compare the acidity of sugar-free hard candies dissolved in water and artificial saliva. Methods: Sugar-free Flopi FlorestalÒ hard candies (grape, strawberry, cherry, orange, ginger, lemon balm, fennel) were selected and grouped in 2 groups: G-1 (candies dissolved in distilled water) and G-2 (candies dissolved in artificial saliva). Candies were triturated with a porcelain pestle, yielding two samples of 20 g. Samples were dissolved in 120 mL distilled water (G-1) and 120 mL artificial saliva (20 mM NaHCO3, 3 mM NaH2PO4.H2O and 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O) (G-2), obtaining three samples of 30 mL for each of the flavors and groups. pH was measured using potentiometer and combined glass electrode. Titratable acidity was evaluated by adding 100 μL 1M NaOH aliquots until reaching pH 5.5. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% significance level (p<0.05). Results: All flavors of G-1 showed pH values below 5.5. Comparison of groups in the same flavor showed a significant increase in pH in flavors of G-2. Comparison of the titratable acidity between G-1 and G-2, showed that fruit flavors were significantly different from each other, with reduced acidity in G-2. Conclusion: All evaluated candies are acid, and dilution in artificial saliva raised their pH and lowered their titratable acidity, reducing their erosive potential. <![CDATA[<b>Does social vulnerability for caries predict caries status of children in sub-urban Nigeria?</b>]]> It is important to identify groups of people vulnerable to a disease condition. Aim: To determine the association between social vulnerability to caries and caries status of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods: A composite vulnerability index for caries was developed using data generated for 992 children. Wilks' Lambda test to verify relationship between vulnerability and its variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine if the social vulnerability for caries index was a good predictor for caries status. Results: The social vulnerability to caries index could not predict caries status. The study found that sex, age and number of siblings were the significant predictors of caries status in the study population. Females (AOR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.08 - 2.46; p=0.02) and children with more than two siblings had higher odds of having caries (AOR: 2.61; 95%CI: 1.61 - 4.24; p<0.001) while children below 5 years had lower odds of having caries (AOR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.39 - 1.00; p=0.05). Conclusion: The social vulnerability index for caries could not predict the caries status of children in the study population. Sensitive tools to identify children with caries in the study population should be developed.